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Prehistoric Life: Evolution and the Fossil Record-[1]-[pdf]-[Bruce S. Lieberman, Roger Kaesler]

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    发表于 2017-10-18 20:17:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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    书籍信息:
    标题: Prehistoric Life: Evolution and the Fossil Record
    语言: English
    格式: pdf
    大小: 16.3M
    页数: 399
    年份: 2010
    作者: Bruce S. Lieberman, Roger Kaesler
    版次: 1

    简介

    Prehistoric life is the archive of evolution preserved in the fossil record.  This book focuses on the meaning and significance of that archive and is designed for introductory college science students, including non-science majors, enrolled in survey courses emphasizing paleontology, geology and biology.From the origins of animals to the evolution of rap music, from ancient mass extinctions to the current biodiversity crisis, and from the Snowball Earth to present day climate change this book covers it, with an eye towards showing how past life on Earth puts the modern world into its proper context. The history of life and the patterns and processes of evolution are especially emphasized, as are the interconnections between our planet, its climate system, and its varied life forms. The book does not just describe the history of life, but uses actual examples from life’s history to illustrate important concepts and theories.


    目录
    Prehistoric Life......Page 5
    Contents......Page 7
    Preface......Page 10
    History, Science, and Historical Science......Page 11
    Time, Life, and Stratigraphy......Page 15
    What is a Fossil?......Page 28
    How do Fossils Form?......Page 32
    Conclusions: Fossils as Curious Stones......Page 37
    Additional Reading......Page 38
    Fossils in Sedimentary Rock......Page 39
    Taphonomy......Page 47
    Time Averaging......Page 52
    Mode of Growth......Page 54
    Trace Fossils......Page 59
    Additional Reading......Page 61
    History of Ideas on Biological Classification......Page 62
    Applying Linnaeus’ Hierarchy......Page 69
    What is a Species and How Does a Paleontologist Identify Them?......Page 80
    Conclusions: the Difference Between Inanimate Atoms and Living Things......Page 81
    Additional Reading......Page 83
    Introduction......Page 84
    A Biological Definition of Evolution......Page 86
    The History of Evolutionary Thought......Page 88
    Science and Religion......Page 96
    Darwin and Wallace: Never Ask a Stranger to Present Your Paper at a Meeting You Cannot Attend......Page 103
    Natural Selection......Page 104
    Conclusions: Why was Natural Selection Not Endorsed at Once by Many Scientists?......Page 106
    Additional Reading......Page 109
    Introduction......Page 110
    Competition and Macroevolution......Page 111
    Does Evolution Happen Gradually or Episodically?......Page 115
    Natural Selection Operating Above and Below the Level of the Individual Organism......Page 120
    Progress and the History of Life......Page 125
    Additional Reading......Page 132
    Introduction......Page 133
    Contingency......Page 134
    Boundaries in the Geological Time Scale and the Nature of Extinction......Page 135
    The Cretaceous–Tertiary Mass Extinction......Page 136
    How has the Existence of Mass Extinctions Influenced the History of Life?......Page 143
    Were Most Extinctions Caused by Asteroid Impact?......Page 146
    The Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction—Causes and Consequences......Page 147
    The Ordovician–Silurian Mass Extinction......Page 150
    Habitat Degradation and Mass Extinctions......Page 153
    The Sixth Great Mass Extinction: The Current Biodiversity Crisis......Page 154
    Conclusions: Lessons from the Past and Future Prospects for Humanity......Page 158
    Additional Reading......Page 159
    Introduction......Page 160
    Methods and Approaches in Systematics......Page 162
    The Growth of Molecular Biology and Improvements in DNA Sequencing Technology......Page 166
    The Spread of Computers and Computer Programs Used to Study Evolutionary Relationships......Page 169
    Systematics and How to go About Identifying Species in the Fossil Record......Page 170
    Systematics and its Relevance for Identifying Patterns of Mass Extinction......Page 171
    Systematics and the Meaning of Adaptations......Page 173
    Additional Reading......Page 179
    Introduction......Page 180
    Galileo’s Principle......Page 181
    Galileo’s Principle and its Relevance to the Biology of Living Organisms......Page 182
    Galileo’s Principle and Constraints on the Evolution of Large Body Size......Page 187
    Galileo’s Principle and its Relevance to Medieval Architecture......Page 190
    Galileo’s Principle and its Relevance to Cratering Density in our Solar System......Page 195
    Concluding Remarks......Page 200
    Additional Reading......Page 201
    Introduction......Page 202
    Paleontologist’s Have Come from Many Different Walks of Life and Have Sported Many Different Hairdos......Page 203
    Paleontology in Ancient Greece......Page 206
    Native American Contributions to Paleontology......Page 211
    Concluding Remarks......Page 216
    Additional Reading......Page 217
    Introduction......Page 218
    Early Ideas on Continents in Motion: Continental Drift......Page 219
    Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift in a Different Guise and with a Valid Mechanism......Page 224
    The Evolutionary Implications of Plate Tectonics......Page 227
    Concluding Remarks......Page 234
    Additional Reading......Page 235
    Introduction......Page 237
    Some of the Major Factors that Govern the Climate System......Page 238
    Examples of How Life has Influenced Climate: The Difference Between the Proterozoic and the Permian......Page 240
    Life Influencing Geology: the Form and Shape of Rivers and the Rocks they Leave Behind......Page 250
    Plants, Oxygen, and Coal: More Examples of Life Affecting the Atmosphere and Geology......Page 256
    How Geology Affects Climate: Considering How Plate Tectonic Changes have Contributed to Climate Changes Over the Last 60 Million Years......Page 258
    Additional Reading......Page 265
    Introduction......Page 267
    The Earliest Evidence for Life in the Geological Record......Page 268
    The Time of Pond Scum and the Rise of Oxygen......Page 273
    For Billions of Years Organisms Have Been Modifying the Atmosphere and Their Environment......Page 277
    More Effects of Rising Oxygen Levels......Page 278
    The Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell......Page 279
    Concluding Remarks......Page 285
    Additional Reading......Page 286
    Introduction......Page 287
    Life Before the Cambrian Radiation......Page 288
    The Burgess Shale and the Cambrian Radiation......Page 296
    The Ordovician Radiation and Concluding Remarks......Page 310
    Additional Reading......Page 312
    Introduction......Page 313
    Reef-Forming Organisms Today......Page 315
    Cnidarians and Outer Space......Page 317
    How Modern Cnidarian Corals Feed......Page 320
    Reefs Through Geological Time......Page 322
    Corals and the Biodiversity Crisis......Page 327
    Lessons from Human Effects on Modern Reefs......Page 328
    Concluding Remarks......Page 330
    Additional Reading......Page 332
    Introduction......Page 333
    Origins of Multicellularity......Page 334
    The Evolution of the Vertebrate Brain......Page 339
    Trends in Brain Size Within Primates and Hominids......Page 347
    Additional Reading......Page 350
    Introduction......Page 351
    Cambrian Origins......Page 353
    Major Groups of Chordates......Page 354
    The Vertebrates......Page 355
    Lobe-Finned Aquatic Vertebrates......Page 361
    The Origins and Evolution of the Tetrapods......Page 364
    Concluding Remarks......Page 371
    Additional Reading......Page 372
    Introduction......Page 373
    What is the Potential that Humans will Encounter Extraterrestrial Civilizations?......Page 374
    Possible Evidence for Life in a Martian Meteorite?......Page 380
    Additional Reading......Page 384
    Introduction......Page 385
    How do New Species Evolve—The Shift from Chimps to Hominids......Page 386
    Humans in a Changing Climate......Page 388
    The Current Biodiversity Crisis......Page 389
    Mapping a Course for Future Changes—Climate and Life......Page 390
    Concluding Remarks......Page 393
    Additional Reading......Page 394
    Index......Page 395
    Color plate section......Page 243

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