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Transportation-[2006]-[pdf]-[Barnhart C.]

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    书籍信息:
    标题: Transportation
    语言: English
    格式: pdf
    大小: 7.2M
    页数: 779
    年份: 2006
    作者: Barnhart C.
    卷信息: Vol.14
    系列: Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science
    DOI: 10.1016/S0927-0507

    简介

    This book contains eleven chapters describing some of the most recent methodological operations research developments in transportation. It is structured around the main transportation modes, and each chapter is written by a group of well-recognized researchers. Because of the major impact of operations research methods in the field of air transportation over the past forty years, it is befitting to open the book with a chapter on airlineoperations management. While many past publications have focused on airline strategic and tactical planning, Ball, Barnhart, Nemhauser and Odoni have chosen to address the organization and control of recovery operations in the event of disturbances. This line of research is relatively new and of major importance to the airline industry. The second chapter, by Desaulniers and Hickman, surveys the planning of public transit operations. The problems addressed and the methods employed in transit planning, for example those arising in network design, passenger assignment, scheduling, and fleet and crew assignment, are often similar to those of the airlines. The railway optimization chapter, by Caprara, Kroon, Monaci, Peeters and Toth, covers the realm of planning problems encountered in railway planning, with an emphasis on European passenger railways. Again, several of these issues are similar to those observed in other modes, but some problems are specific to the railway industry, such as train platforming, rolling stock circulation, and train unit shunting. The fourth chapter, by Christiansen, Fagerholt, Nygreen and Ronen, contains an extensive survey of maritime transportation problems, methods and applications. Compared with other modes, maritime transportation has received relatively little attention from operations researchers. Yet this field is rapidly expanding with the consolidation of major shipping companies and the development of large container ports.The next three chapters cover a variety of planning problems arising in vehicle fleet management. The chapter by Powell, Bouzaiene-Ayari and Simao addresses truck transportation planning in contexts where information processes are dynamic. The focus is on the development of models that capture the flow of information and decisions. The vehicle routing chapter, by Cordeau, Laporte, Savelsbergh and Vigo, concerns what is arguably the most central problem in distribution management. It surveys several families of vehicle routing problems, including classical models, inventory routing, and stochastic routing. In the transportation on demand chapter, Cordeau, Laporte, Potvin and Savelsbergh consider the planning of pickup and delivery operations made at the request of users, such as those encountered in courier services, dial-a-ride operations, dial-a-flight systems, and ambulance fleet deployment.


    目录
    Preface......Page 1
    Introduction......Page 4
    Flow constraints in the infrastructure of commercial aviation......Page 8
    The ``physics'' of airport capacity......Page 10
    Separation requirements and high-speed exits.......Page 11
    Mix of movements.......Page 12
    Capacity envelope and its computation......Page 13
    The sequencing problem......Page 14
    Interactions between operations on different runways.......Page 15
    Weather-related factors.......Page 16
    State and performance of the ATM system.......Page 17
    The variability and unpredictability of the capacity of runway systems......Page 18
    The capacity of airspace sectors......Page 20
    Options and current practice on airport scheduling......Page 22
    Critical issues regarding restricting schedules......Page 23
    Basic premises......Page 26
    Ground holding (including ground stops).......Page 27
    Arrival sequencing.......Page 28
    Global models......Page 29
    Deterministic ground holding models......Page 31
    Uncertainty and stochastic models......Page 32
    Ground holding models with stochastic airport capacity......Page 33
    Collaborative decision making......Page 35
    CDM resource allocation procedures for ground delay programs......Page 36
    Properties of RBS.......Page 38
    Compression as trading.......Page 39
    Air carrier response options......Page 40
    Simulation models......Page 41
    Airline schedule recovery......Page 43
    Aircraft recovery......Page 44
    Expanded aircraft recovery......Page 47
    Crew recovery......Page 48
    Passenger recovery......Page 51
    Robust airline scheduling......Page 53
    Robust fleet assignment......Page 54
    Degradable airline scheduling......Page 56
    Robust aircraft routing: Allocating slack to minimize delays......Page 57
    Robust crew scheduling......Page 59
    Minimizing expected crew costs......Page 60
    Move-up crews......Page 61
    Conclusions......Page 63
    References......Page 64
    Introduction......Page 71
    Strategic planning......Page 72
    Network design......Page 73
    Passenger assignment......Page 80
    Uncongested assignment......Page 82
    Congested assignment......Page 85
    Frequency setting......Page 88
    Timetabling......Page 93
    Operational planning......Page 96
    Vehicle scheduling......Page 97
    Duty scheduling......Page 102
    Integrated vehicle and duty scheduling......Page 106
    Crew rostering......Page 110
    Parking and dispatching......Page 111
    Maintenance scheduling......Page 113
    Real-time control......Page 114
    Vehicle holding......Page 115
    Other strategies......Page 119
    Cited references......Page 122
    Introduction......Page 130
    Strategic planning......Page 132
    Rolling stock management......Page 133
    Line planning......Page 134
    Literature review......Page 136
    Assumptions......Page 137
    The model......Page 138
    Comments......Page 140
    Noncyclic timetabling......Page 142
    Literature review......Page 143
    Model formulation......Page 144
    The model......Page 145
    Experimental results......Page 147
    Cyclic timetabling......Page 150
    Train platforming......Page 151
    Literature review......Page 152
    Model formulation......Page 153
    Rolling stock circulation......Page 155
    Literature review......Page 157
    Model formulation......Page 159
    Experimental results......Page 161
    Literature review......Page 162
    Model formulation......Page 163
    Maintenance routing......Page 166
    Train unit shunting......Page 168
    Literature review......Page 169
    Model formulation......Page 171
    Crew planning......Page 173
    Literature review......Page 175
    Model formulation......Page 176
    Crew Scheduling......Page 177
    Crew Rostering......Page 179
    An integrated approach......Page 180
    Experimental results......Page 181
    Perspective......Page 183
    References......Page 184
    Introduction......Page 189
    Characteristics and terminology of maritime transportation......Page 196
    Ship and port characteristics......Page 197
    Types of shipping services......Page 198
    Cargo characteristics......Page 199
    Terms used in maritime transportation planning......Page 200
    Strategic planning in maritime transportation......Page 201
    Ship design......Page 202
    Fleet size and mix......Page 205
    Homogeneous fleet size......Page 206
    Heterogeneous fleet size and mix......Page 209
    Liner network design......Page 211
    Traditional liner operations......Page 212
    Hub and spoke networks......Page 216
    Design of maritime transport systems......Page 220
    Contract evaluation......Page 221
    Scheduling problems for industrial and tramp shipping......Page 222
    Full shiploads......Page 223
    Multiple cargoes with fixed cargo size......Page 228
    Multiple cargoes with flexible cargo size......Page 232
    Multiple products......Page 234
    Contracted and optional cargoes......Page 236
    Use of spot charters......Page 237
    Solution approaches for industrial and tramp scheduling models......Page 238
    The master problem in the DW decomposition approach.......Page 239
    Column generation and the subproblems within the DW decomposition approach.......Page 240
    The set partitioning approach......Page 241
    Maritime supply chains......Page 242
    Inventory routing for a single product......Page 243
    Inventory routing for multiple products......Page 251
    Other maritime supply chain applications......Page 256
    Fleet deployment in liner shipping......Page 257
    Barge scheduling......Page 261
    Scheduling naval combat vessels......Page 262
    Ship management......Page 263
    Operational scheduling......Page 264
    Environmental routing......Page 265
    Ocean currents......Page 266
    Speed selection......Page 267
    Ship loading......Page 268
    Booking of single orders......Page 270
    Strategic planning and uncertainty......Page 271
    Robust tactical planning......Page 272
    Persistence......Page 275
    Mergers, acquisitions, and collaborations......Page 276
    Shift from industrial to tramp shipping......Page 277
    Strategic planning issues and market interaction......Page 278
    Conclusion......Page 279
    References......Page 280
    Introduction......Page 285
    Some illustrative applications......Page 286
    A resource model......Page 289
    What is a resource?......Page 290
    Resource layering......Page 291
    Major problem classes......Page 293
    The states of our system......Page 294
    Bibliographic notes......Page 295
    Modeling exogenous information processes......Page 296
    Modeling time......Page 297
    The information process......Page 298
    Lagged information processes......Page 300
    Information and sigma-algebras......Page 302
    Representing decisions......Page 306
    The decision function......Page 307
    System dynamics......Page 309
    An optimization formulation......Page 311
    Algorithmic strategies......Page 312
    Rolling horizon procedures......Page 313
    Stochastic programming......Page 314
    Dynamic programming......Page 316
    Incorporating low-dimensional patterns......Page 320
    Summary: The four information classes......Page 324
    Bibliographic notes......Page 328
    Discrete value function approximations for a single resource......Page 330
    Basis functions......Page 333
    Auxiliary functions......Page 334
    Linear functional approximations......Page 335
    Separable piecewise-linear functional approximations......Page 336
    The organization of information and decisions......Page 338
    A dynamic model......Page 341
    Optimization formulation......Page 346
    Some numerical experiments......Page 348
    A model of the dynamic load assignment problem......Page 350
    Optimization formulation......Page 352
    Some numerical experiments......Page 355
    Batch processes for less-than-truckload trucking......Page 356
    A single link model of the dynamic dispatch problem......Page 358
    A solution algorithm for the single-link problem......Page 359
    References......Page 362
    Introduction......Page 366
    Formulations......Page 367
    Exact algorithms for the CVRP......Page 369
    Branch-and-bound and set partitioning based algorithms......Page 370
    Branch-and-cut algorithms......Page 373
    Heuristics for the VRP......Page 374
    Route construction heuristics.......Page 375
    Two-phase heuristics.......Page 376
    Metaheuristics......Page 378
    Local search heuristics.......Page 380
    Population search heuristics.......Page 382
    Learning mechanisms.......Page 383
    The vehicle routing problem with time windows......Page 384
    Formulation of the VRPTW......Page 385
    Lagrangian relaxation based algorithms......Page 386
    Column generation algorithms......Page 388
    A branch-and-cut algorithm......Page 390
    Construction heuristics......Page 391
    Improvement heuristics......Page 392
    Tabu search heuristics.......Page 393
    Genetic algorithms.......Page 394
    Other metaheuristics.......Page 395
    The inventory routing problem......Page 397
    Definition of the IRP......Page 398
    Motivating example......Page 399
    Single customer analysis......Page 400
    The two-customer IRP......Page 402
    Literature review on the IRP......Page 403
    Stochastic vehicle routing problems......Page 409
    The vehicle routing problem with stochastic customers......Page 412
    The vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands......Page 413
    The vehicle routing problem with stochastic customers and demands......Page 414
    The vehicle routing problem with stochastic travel times......Page 415
    References......Page 416
    Introduction......Page 428
    The vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery......Page 430
    Exact algorithms......Page 432
    Heuristics......Page 434
    Exact algorithms......Page 435
    Heuristics......Page 437
    Scheduling......Page 438
    The static single-vehicle DARP......Page 439
    The static multiple-vehicle DARP......Page 440
    The dynamic DARP......Page 443
    Urban courier service problems......Page 444
    A tabu search heuristic for the UCSP......Page 445
    A double-horizon strategy for the UCSP......Page 446
    The dial-a-flight problem......Page 447
    The static dial-a-flight problem......Page 449
    A model for the static dial-a-flight problem......Page 450
    Algorithmic issues related to the dynamic dial-a-flight problem......Page 452
    Two early ambulance location models......Page 453
    Static models with extra coverage......Page 454
    Probabilistic models with extra coverage......Page 457
    A dynamic model......Page 460
    References......Page 461
    Introduction......Page 466
    Freight transportation systems......Page 468
    Container intermodal transportation......Page 469
    Customized, consolidation, and intermodal transportation......Page 470
    Consolidation and intermodal terminals......Page 473
    Models for system design......Page 477
    Location with balancing requirements......Page 478
    Multicommodity production distribution......Page 480
    Hub-location models......Page 482
    Service network design......Page 484
    Static service network design......Page 486
    Design of postal services......Page 488
    Time-dependent service network design......Page 491
    Port dimensioning......Page 492
    Container fleet management......Page 493
    Berth scheduling......Page 500
    Quay-crane scheduling......Page 506
    Stowage planning and sequencing......Page 508
    Storage activities in the yard......Page 513
    Allocation and dispatching of yard cranes and transporters......Page 516
    Strategic planning of multimodal systems......Page 519
    Demand......Page 521
    Supply representation and assignment......Page 522
    Perspectives......Page 525
    References......Page 528
    Introduction......Page 537
    Special issues of journals......Page 542
    Books......Page 543
    Reports......Page 544
    Software......Page 545
    Classification......Page 546
    Risk assessment......Page 549
    Frequency analysis......Page 550
    Historical frequencies......Page 553
    Logical diagram-based techniques......Page 554
    Modeling the impact area......Page 556
    Gaussian plume model......Page 557
    Risk cost......Page 561
    Cleanup costs.......Page 562
    Traffic incident delay.......Page 563
    Perceived risks......Page 564
    Risk on a hazmat transportation route......Page 566
    Edge risk......Page 567
    Path risk......Page 570
    Expected disutility model.......Page 574
    Demand satisfaction model.......Page 575
    Path risk axioms......Page 576
    Routing and scheduling......Page 578
    Local routing problems......Page 579
    Rail transport......Page 580
    Multiobjective approaches to local routing......Page 581
    Local routing and scheduling problems......Page 585
    A priori optimization......Page 586
    Adaptive route selection with real-time updates......Page 588
    Global routing problems......Page 591
    Equity considerations in global route planning......Page 592
    Hazmat transportation network design......Page 595
    Facility location and transportation......Page 597
    Synthesis and future research directions......Page 603
    Risk calculation - consequences......Page 604
    Risk equity......Page 605
    Implementation......Page 606
    Recent concern: security......Page 607
    Acknowledgements......Page 608
    References......Page 609
    Background......Page 620
    The basic theme......Page 621
    The Wardrop conditions......Page 622
    Link flow representations......Page 624
    Variational inequality representations......Page 627
    A fixed demand reformulation of the elastic demand model......Page 629
    The equivalence between equilibria in different representations......Page 630
    Properties of equilibria......Page 632
    Existence of equilibria......Page 633
    Uniqueness of equilibria......Page 634
    Alternative definitions......Page 636
    Relationships......Page 638
    User versus system optimality......Page 640
    Bibliographical notes......Page 641
    Multi-mode and multi-attribute models......Page 643
    Introduction and equilibrium characterizations......Page 649
    Wardrop-like principles......Page 652
    Strategic models......Page 654
    Bibliographical notes......Page 661
    General guidelines......Page 663
    Model structures and the verification of equilibria......Page 664
    Decomposition-coordination......Page 665
    Decomposition by Lagrangian relaxation......Page 666
    Decomposition by linearization......Page 667
    Merit functions and convergence for asymmetric models......Page 668
    Implementations and computational experience......Page 671
    Bibliographical notes......Page 673
    Multi-mode and multi-attribute models......Page 675
    Side constraints......Page 678
    Strategic model......Page 679
    Bibliographical notes......Page 680
    Introduction......Page 681
    Sensitivity analysis of separable traffic equilibrium......Page 683
    Limitations of the classical sensitivity framework......Page 685
    Inducing system-optimal flows through link tolls......Page 688
    Tolls for raising revenues......Page 691
    A continuous network design problem......Page 693
    Bibliographical notes......Page 697
    Definition and formulations......Page 699
    Monotonicity properties......Page 700
    Algorithms......Page 701
    Bibliographical notes......Page 702
    References......Page 703
    Introduction......Page 711
    Traffic flow modeling approaches......Page 712
    Properties of traffic flow......Page 713
    Microscopic traffic flow models......Page 715
    Stimulus-response models.......Page 716
    Psycho-spacing models.......Page 718
    Submicroscopic simulation models.......Page 719
    Cellular Automaton (CA) or particle hopping models.......Page 720
    Conservation of vehicles and the kinematic wave model.......Page 721
    Payne-type models.......Page 723
    Gas-kinetic flow models......Page 724
    Model application......Page 726
    Introduction......Page 728
    Guidance objectives......Page 729
    RGIS functional characteristics......Page 730
    Predictive guidance and consistency......Page 732
    Approaches for predictive guidance generation......Page 733
    Driver response to RGIS......Page 735
    Areas of current research......Page 737
    UTC systems: general requirements......Page 739
    Principles of traffic signal control......Page 741
    Traffic-responsive systems......Page 742
    TRANSYT (TRAffic Network StudY Tool).......Page 743
    SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique).......Page 744
    SCATS (Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System).......Page 746
    TUC (Traffic-Responsive Urban Control).......Page 747
    PRODYN.......Page 748
    Operational Research (OR) techniques......Page 749
    The control loop......Page 750
    Fixed-time ramp metering strategies.......Page 752
    Local ramp metering.......Page 753
    Multivariable regulator strategies.......Page 754
    Nonlinear optimal ramp metering strategies.......Page 755
    Route guidance control strategies......Page 756
    The motorway network traffic model......Page 757
    The constrained optimal control problem......Page 759
    Application results......Page 760
    The no-control case......Page 761
    The control case......Page 762
    References......Page 764
    Subject Index......Page 771

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