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HVDC and FACTS Controllers: Applications of Static Converters in Power Systems-[1]-[2004]-[pdf]-[Vijay K. Sood]

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    书籍信息:
    标题: HVDC and FACTS Controllers: Applications of Static Converters in Power Systems
    语言: English
    格式: pdf
    大小: 17.7M
    页数: 322
    年份: 2004
    作者: Vijay K. Sood
    版次: 1
    系列: Power Electronics and Power Systems
    出版社: Springer

    简介

    HVDC and FACTS Controllers: Applications of Static Converters in Power Systems focuses on the technical advances and developments that have taken place in the past ten years or so in the fields of High Voltage DC transmission and Flexible AC transmission systems. These advances (in HVDC transmission and FACTS) have added a new dimension to power transmission capabilities. The book covers a wide variety of topics, some of which are listed below:  -Current Source and Voltage Source Converters,  -Synchronization Techniques for Power Converters,  -Capacitor Commutated Converters,  -Active Filters,  -Typical Disturbances on HVDC Systems,  -Simulation Techniques,  -Static Var Compensators based on Chain Link Converters,  -Advanced Controllers,  -Trends in Modern HVDC.  In addition to EHV transmission, HVDC technology has impacted on a number of other areas as well. As an example, a chapter dealing with HVDC Light applications is included providing recent information on both on-shore and off-shore applications of wind farms.

    Table of Contents

    Cover

    HVDC and FACTS Controllers - Applications of Static Converters in
    Power Systems

    eISBN: 1402078919 ISBN: 1402078900

    Contents

    Preface

    Acronyms

    Chapter 1 Introduction to HVDC Transmission

        1.1 INTRODUCTION
        1.2 COMPARISON OF AC-DC TRANSMISSION
            1.2.1 Evaluation Of Transmission Costs
            1.2.2 Evaluation Of Technical Considerations
                o Stability Limits
                o Voltage Control
                o Line Compensation
                o Problems of AC Interconnection
                o Ground Impedance
                o Problems of DC Transmission
            1.2.3 Evaluation Of Reliability And Availability Costs
            1.2.4 Applications of DC Transmission
                o Underground or underwater cables
                o Long distance bulk power transmission
                o Asynchronous interconnection of ac systems
                o Stabilization of power flows in integrated power system
        1.3 TYPES OF HVDC SYSTEMS
            1.3.1 Monopolar Link
            1.3.2 Bipolar Link
            1.3.3 Homopolar Link
        1.4 REFERENCES

    Chapter 2 Types of Converters

        2.1 INTRODUCTION
        2.2 CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTERS (CSC)
            2.2.1 Case with no overlap period
                o Relationship between ac and dc current
            2.2.2 Case with overlap period less than 60 degrees.
        2.3 VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTERS (VSC) 2.3.1 Introduction
            2.3.2 Control of the DC Capacitor Voltage
            2.3.3 VSC with AC Current Control
                o 2.3.3.1 PWM Pattern Generation Techniques
                     # 1. Periodical Sampling (PS) (Figure 2-14)
                     # 2. Hysteresis Band (HB) (Figure 2-15)
                     # 3. Triangular Carrier (TC) Technique (Figure 2-16)
            2.3.4 VSC with AC Voltage Control
                o 2.3.4.1 PWM with Bipolar Voltage Switching
                o 2.3.4.2 PWM with Unipolar Voltage Switching
        2.4 CLOSING REMARKS
        2.5 REFERENCES

    Chapter 3 Synchronization Techniques for Power Converters

        3.1 INTRODUCTION
        3.2 REVIEW OF GFUs
            3.2.1 Individual Phase Control (IPC) Unit
            3.2.2 Equi-Distant Pulse Control (EPC) Unit
                o 3.2.2.1 Pulse Frequency Control (PFC) Type
                o 3.2.2.2 Pulse Phase Control (PPC) Type
        3.3 GFUs DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 3.3.1 Conventional GFU
            3.3.2 DQO GFU
            3.3.3 Comparison
        3.4 TESTS ON GFUs
            3.4.1 Loss of Synchronization Voltage
            3.4.2 Harmonic Distortion Test
        3.5 EMTP SIMULATION OF A TEST SYSTEM
            3.5.1 Start-up Of System Model
            3.5.2 10% Step Change In Current Order
            3.5.3 Single Phase Fault
            3.5.4 DC Line Fault
        3.6 CONCLUSIONS
        3.7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        3.8 REFERENCES

    Chapter 4 HVDC Controls

        4.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
        4.2 FUNCTIONS OF HVDC CONTROLS
            Limit the maximum dc current.
            Maintain a maximum dc voltage for transmission.
            Minimize reactive power consumption.
            Other features.
        4.3 CONTROL BASICS FOR A TWO-TERMINAL DC LINK
        4.4 CURRENT MARGIN CONTROL METHOD
            4.4.1 Rectifier mode of operation
            4.4.2 Inverter Mode of operation
                o At the rectifier:
                o At the inverter:
        4.5 CURRENT CONTROL AT THE RECTIFIER
        4.6 INVERTER EXTINCTION ANGLE CONTROL
            4.6.1 Measurement of Gamma Approach 1 [5]
            4.6.2 Prediction of Gamma Approach 2 [7]
        4.7 HIERARCHY OF CONTROLS
            4.7.1 Bipole Controller (Figure 4-14)
            4.7.2 Pole Controller (Figure 4-15)
            4.7.3 Valve Group (VG) Controller (Figure 4-16)
        4.8 ACTION BY CONTROLS AFTER A DISTURBANCE
        4.9 REFERENCES

    Chapter 5 Forced Commutated HVDC Converters

        5.1 INTRODUCTION
        5.2 COMMUTATION TECHNIQUES FOR HVDC CONVERTERS
            5.2.1 Definition Of Commutation
                o 5.2.1.1 Definition of Terms
            5.2.2 Line (or Natural) Commutation
                o 5.2.2.1 Limitations of Line Commutation
            5.2.3 Circuit Commutation
            5.2.4 Series Capacitor Circuit
                o 5.2.4.1 Parallel Capacitor Circuit
            5.2.5 Self-Commutation
                o 5.2.5.1 Current Source Converter (CSC)
            5.2.6 Voltage Source Converters (VSCs)
                o 5.2.6.1 Comparison of Current and Voltage Source
                  Converters
            5.2.7 Regions Of Converter Operation
                o 5.2.7.1 With Circuit Commutated Devices
                o 5.2.7.2 With Self-Commutated Devices
        5.3 EXAMPLES OF FC CONVERTERS FOR HVDC TRANSMISSION
            5.3.1 Circuit-Commutated Converters
                o 5.3.1.1 Series Capacitor Circuits
                o 5.3.1.2 Parallel Capacitor Circuits
                o 5.3.1.3 DC Line Side Commutated Circuits
            5.3.2 Self-Commutated Converters
                o 5.3.2.1 Current Source Converter Circuit
                o 5.3.2.2 Voltage Source Converter Circuit
        5.4 REFERENCES

    Chapter 6 Capacitor Commutated Converters for HVDC Systems

        6.1 CAPACITOR COMMUTATED CONVERTERS
            6.1.1 Reactive Power Management
            6.1.2 Thyristor Valve Modules
        6.2 CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR CONVERTER (CSCC)
        6.3 COMPARISON OF CCC AND CSCC
            6.3.1 Steady State Performance
                o A. Extinction Angle Characteristics:
                o B. Maximum Available Power:
                o C. Converter Valve Voltage Stress:
                o D. Harmonics and Filtering:
            6.3.2 Transient Performance
                o A. Load Rejection Over-voltages:
                o B. Three Phase AC Bus Fault:
                o C. Single Phase Remote AC Fault:
                o D. Valve Short Circuit Over-current:
        6.4 GARABI INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN ARGENTINA BRAZIL
            6.4.1 Valve Stresses
            6.4.2 AC Switchyard
            6.4.3 AC Filters
            6.4.4 Thyristor Valves Modules
            6.4.5 Modular Design Benefits
        6.5 CLOSING REMARKS
        6.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        6.7 REFERENCES

    Chapter 7 Static Compensators: STATCOM Based On Chain-link Converters

        7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1.1 Static Var Compensator (SVC)
        7.2 THE CHAIN LINK CONVERTER
            7.2.1 Chain Link Ratings
            7.2.2 Losses
        7.3 ADVANTAGES OF CHAIN CIRCUIT STATCOM
        7.4 DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION
        7.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
        7.6 REFERENCES

    Chapter 8 HVDC Systems Using Voltage Source Converters

        8.1 INTRODUCTION
        8.2 BASIC ELEMENTS OF HVDC USING VSCs
            8.2.1 Voltage Source Converters
            8.2.2 The XLPE Cables
                o 8.2.2.1 Comparing AC-DC Cables
        8.3 VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTER
            8.3.1 Operating Principles Of A VSC
                o 8.3.1.1 Design Of Control Systems
            8.3.2 Design Considerations
                o 8.3.2.1 Steady State Characteristics [3]
        8.4 APPLICATIONS
            8.4.1 In Environmentally Sensitive Locations, i.e. City
             Centres
            8.4.2 Infeeds Of Small Scale Renewable
            8.4.3 Power From Wind Farms
            8.4.4 Increasing Capacity on existing RoW
                o Converting ac to dc
                o Adding capacity with dc cables
                o Control of power flow
            8.4.5 Improved Reliability Of City Centres
        8.5 TJAEREBORG WINDPOWER PROJECT IN DENMARK
            8.5.1 Description Of The Project
            8.5.2 Main Data
                o Converter
                o DC Cable
            8.5.3 Operational Regime Of The Voltage Source Converter
            8.5.4 Power Quality
            8.5.5 Control System
            8.5.6 DC Cable
            8.5.7 Building
            8.5.8 Performed Tests On Site
            8.5.9 Advantages
        8.6 POWER SUPPLY TO REMOTE LOCATIONS (i.e. ISLANDS)
            8.6.1 The Gotland Island System
        8.7 ASYNCHRONOUS INTER-CONNECTIONS 8.7.1 Directlink Project New
        South Wales And Queensland
            8.7.2 Main System Components
            8.7.3 Control System
        8.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS
        8.9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        8.10 REFERENCES

    Chapter 9 Active Filters

        9.1 INTRODUCTION
        9.2 DC FILTERS
        9.3 AC FILTERS
            9.3.1 Test System
            9.3.2 Control Philosophy
                o 9.3.2.1 Block 1: Derivation of Component
                     # (A) Compute Peak Bus Voltage. This sub-block is
                       used to derive the peak
                     # (B) Compute Instantaneous Load Power. The
                       instantaneous load power
                     # (C) Compute (peak) Load Current Reference. The
                       sensed average load
                o 9.3.2.2 Block 2: Derivation of Component
                o 9.3.2.3 Block 3: Derivation of Switching Signals for AF,
            9.3.3 Test Results
                o 9.3.3.1 Steady State Performance of the AF (Figure 9-3)
                o 9.3.3.2 Transient Performance of the AF
        9.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS
        9.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        9.6 REFERENCES

    Chapter 10 Typical Disturbances in HVDC Systems

        10.1 INTRODUCTION
        10.2 CIGRE BENCHMARK MODEL FOR HVDC CONTROL STUDIES
        10.3 DETAILS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS USED 10.3.1 Rectifier Control Unit
            10.3.2 Inverter Control Unit
        10.4 RESULTS
            10.4.1 Controller Optimization Tests
                o 10.4.1.1 10% Step Change In Rectifier Current Reference
                o 10.4.1.2 5% Step Change In Inverter Current Reference
                o 10.4.1.3 2.5° Step Change In Inverter Gamma Reference
            10.4.2 Mode Shift
            10.4.3 Single-phase, 1-cycle Fault At The Inverter (Single
             Commutation Failure)
            10.4.4 Single-phase 5-cycle Fault At The Inverter (Multiple
             Commutation Failures)
            10.4.5 3-Phase 5-cycle Fault At The Inverter
            10.4.6 1-phase 5-cycle Fault At The Rectifier
            10.4.7 3-phase 5-cycle Fault At The Rectifier
            10.4.8 DC Line Fault At The Rectifier Side
            10.4.9 DC Line Fault At The Inverter Side
        10.5 CLOSING REMARKS
        10.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        10.7 REFERENCES

    Chapter 11 Advanced Controllers

        11.1 INTRODUCTION
        11.2 APPLICATION OF AN ADVANCED VDCL UNIT 11.2.1 Introduction
            11.2.2 Fuzzy Inference
            11.2.3 Structure of RBF NN
            11.2.4 Methodology
            11.2.5 HVDC System Considered For The Study
                o 11.2.5.1 HVDC system
                o 11.2.5.2 Control system representation
            11.2.6 Results And Discussions
                o 11.2.6.1 Case 1 Starting-up Of DC System
                o 11.2.6.2 Case 2 Reduction Of DC Voltage
                o 11.2.6.3 Case 3 Recovery From Fault
                o 11.2.6.4 Case 4 Current Reference Tracking
        11.3 CONCLUSIONS
        11.4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        11.5 REFERENCES

    Chapter 12 Measurement/Monitoring Aspects

        12.1 INTRODUCTION
        12.2 MONITORING OF SIGNALS
        12.3 PROTECTION AGAINST OVER-CURRENTS
            Current Extinction (CE)
            Commutation Failure (CF) or misfire
            Short Circuits internal or dc line
        12.4 PROTECTION AGAINST OVER-VOLTAGES
        12.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        12.6 REFERENCES

    Chapter 13 Case Studies Of AC-DC System Interactions

        13.1 INTRODUCTION
        13.2 AC-DC SYSTEM INTER-ACTIONS
            13.2.1 System Aspects
            13.2.2 DC Controller Aspects
        13.3 MULTI-TERMINAL HVDC SYSTEMS [1,2,3]
            13.3.1 Remote 3 Phase Fault At Rectifier 1
            13.3.2 Commutation Failure At The Small Inverter 2
        13.4 HARMONIC INTER-ACTIONS AT CHANDRAPUR HVDC STATION [6]
        13.5 CONCLUSIONS
        13.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        13.7 REFERENCES

    Chapter 14 Simulators For Analyzes Of Power System Phenomena

        14.1 INTRODUCTION
        14.2 THE IREQ HYBRID SIMULATOR [4-7]
            14.2.1 Modelling Techniques
        14.3 OFF-LINE DIGITAL SIMULATION PACKAGES 14.3.1 EMTP
            14.3.2 EMTDC/PSCAD
                o Network Components
                o Control Blocks
                o Power Electronics
                o Meters
                o 14.3.2.1 PSCAD Graphical User Interface (GUI)
        14.4 REAL-TIME DIGITAL SIMULATORS
            14.4.1 Methodology
            14.4.2 Hardware Considerations
            14.4.3 Software Considerations
            14.4.4 Graphical User Interface (GUI)
            14.4.5 Validation Of Real-time Digital Simulators
            14.4.6 Hardware Implementations
        14.5 PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS
        14.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
        14.7 REFERENCES

    Chapter 15 Modern HVDC State Of The Art

        15.1 INTRODUCTION
        15.2 PAST DECADE VERSION
            Valves: Typical of the state-of-the-art valves during this
             period was the
            Converter Transformers: These were three 1-phase winding
             trans-
            AC Filters: These were mainly of the conventional, passive
             double-
            DC Filters: These were of the passive type with either air or
             oil cooled
            DC Controls: These were mainly digital, but with some analog
             parts
        15.3 PRESENT DECADE VERSION
            15.3.1 Thyristor Valves
            15.3.2 Self-commutated Valves
            15.3.3 Active Filters
                o 15.3.3.1 AC Side Of The Converter
                o 15.3.3.2 DC Side Of The Converter
            15.3.4 Tunable AC Filters
            15.3.5 AC-DC Measurements
            15.3.6 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) Controllers
            15.3.7 Compact Station Design
            15.3.8 Deep Hole Ground Electrode
        15.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS
        15.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
        15.6 REFERENCES

    Index

    About the Author

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