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Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law (2 volume set)-[1]-[2007]-[djvu]-[Brian L. Cutler]

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    书籍信息:
    标题: Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law (2 volume set)
    语言: English
    格式: djvu
    大小: 9.2M
    页数: 947
    年份: 2007
    作者: Brian L. Cutler
    版次: 1
    出版社: Sage Publications, Inc

    简介

    The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law  addresses the interface of psychology and law and draws from the related discipline of criminal justice. These two volumes represent an outstanding collection of entries describing a wide array of contemporary and historical psychology and law topics. With more than 400 entries, this comprehensive resource is perfect to fill the substantial gap in the holdings of academic, professional, and personal libraries on this topic.

    Key Themes
    <ul type="disc">
  • Criminal Competencies
  • Criminal Responsibility
  • Death Penalty
  • Education and Professional Development
  • Forensic Assessment in Civil and Criminal Cases
  • Juvenile Offenders
  • Mental Health Law
  • Police and Investigative Psychology
  • Psychological and Forensic Assessment Instruments
  • Psychology of Criminal Behavior
  • Sentencing and Incarceration
  • Symptoms and Disorders Relevant to Forensic Assessment
  • Trial Processes
  • Violence Risk Assessment
    The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law  allows individual students, scientists, and practitioners to keep abreast of the growing knowledge base outside their individual areas of expertise, making it a must-have resource for any academic library.



    目录
    Cover Page......Page 1
    Title Page......Page 3
    ISBN 1412951895......Page 4
    Contents......Page 5
    Senior Advisory Board Members......Page 6
    List of Entries......Page 7
    Death Penalty......Page 12
    Eyewitness Memory......Page 13
    Forensic Assessment in Civil and Criminal Cases......Page 14
    Mental Health Law......Page 15
    Psychological and Forensic Assessment Instruments......Page 16
    Sentencing and Incarceration......Page 17
    Trial Processes......Page 18
    Violence Risk Assessment......Page 19
    Managing Editor......Page 20
    Contributors......Page 21
    Why an Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law?......Page 32
    Brewing the Encyclopedia......Page 33
    Acknowledgments......Page 34
    Description of the Instrument......Page 35
    Legal Standards for Juvenile Competence......Page 36
    Assessment of Youths’ Adjudicative Competence......Page 37
    Interventions for Remediating Incompetent Youth......Page 38
    ADULT ATTACHMENT INTERVIEW (AAI)......Page 39
    AGGRAVATING AND MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES, EVALUATION OF IN CAPITAL CASES......Page 40
    Aggravating Factors......Page 43
    Mitigating Factors......Page 44
    INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE; SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS ALCOHOL INTOXICATION, IMPACT ON EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 45
    Alcohol Research Methodologies......Page 46
    Intoxicated Eyewitnesses: Experimental Findings......Page 47
    ALIBI WITNESSES......Page 48
    Third-Party ADR Processes......Page 49
    The Efficacy of ADR......Page 50
    The Effect of Process, Third-Party, and Dispute Characteristics......Page 51
    AMBER Alert and Social Science......Page 53
    AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION RESOLUTION ON MENTAL DISABILITY AND THE DEATH PENALTY......Page 54
    The Resolution (Quoted From the Task Force)......Page 56
    Background of the ADA......Page 57
    Mental Disabilities in the ADA......Page 58
    Litigation-Related Evaluations and Consultations......Page 59
    Overview......Page 60
    Perceptions of the Amicus Curiae Brief......Page 61
    ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER......Page 62
    Phenomenology, Associated Features, and Correlates......Page 63
    Assessment......Page 64
    Etiology......Page 65
    Controversies......Page 66
    APPEARANCE-CHANGE INSTRUCTION IN LINEUPS......Page 67
    AUTOMATISM......Page 68
    The Automatism Defense: Case Law......Page 69
    BAIL-SETTING DECISIONS......Page 71
    Improving Bail Decisions......Page 72
    History of Domestic Violence and the Law......Page 73
    Women Who Kill in Self-Defense......Page 74
    Psychological Theories About Domestic Violence and Battered Women......Page 75
    Application of Battered Woman Syndrome in Legal Contexts......Page 76
    BATTERED WOMAN SYNDROME, TESTIMONY ON......Page 77
    BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS INTERVIEW......Page 79
    Bias Crime in the United States......Page 81
    Criminalizing Bias Crime......Page 82
    Costs Incurred......Page 83
    Preventing Bias Crimes......Page 84
    Legal Aspects of TCC......Page 85
    Clinical Assessment of TCC......Page 86
    Research on TCC in Clinical Populations......Page 87
    Structure and Administration of the CCTI......Page 88
    Clinical and Research Utility......Page 89
    Miranda Warnings......Page 90
    Developmental Considerations......Page 91
    Consequences......Page 92
    Identification of Relevant Capacities......Page 93
    CAPITAL MITIGATION......Page 94
    Nature and Scope of Capital Mitigation......Page 95
    Psychological Underpinning of Capital Mitigation......Page 96
    CAPITAL PUNISHMENT See DEATH PENALTY CHECKLIST FOR COMPETENCY FOR EXECUTION EVALUATIONS......Page 97
    Project Studies and Results......Page 99
    Project Legacy and Impact......Page 101
    Reliability......Page 102
    CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATIONS......Page 103
    A Historical Review of Custody of Children......Page 104
    Comprehensive Evaluation of Parental Responsibility......Page 105
    Variations on the Nature and Forms of Families......Page 106
    Defining Child Maltreatment......Page 107
    Potential Effects of Child Maltreatment......Page 108
    Prevention and Intervention......Page 110
    Memory and Suggestibility in the Child Witness......Page 111
    Interview Techniques and Protocols......Page 113
    Children in the Courtroom......Page 115
    Perceptions of Bystander Witnesses......Page 116
    Perceptions of Alleged Victims of Child Maltreatment......Page 117
    Future Research......Page 118
    Definitional Issues......Page 119
    Identification of Victims......Page 120
    Consequences of Sexual Abuse......Page 121
    Treatment for Victims and Families......Page 122
    CIVIL COMMITMENT......Page 123
    Civil Commitment Statutory Criteria......Page 124
    CLASSIFICATION OF VIOLENCE RISK (COVR)......Page 126
    CLOTHING BIAS IN IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES......Page 128
    Social Dynamics......Page 129
    Memory and Cognition......Page 130
    Empirical Testing to Validate the Cognitive Interview......Page 131
    Other Investigative Tasks......Page 132
    Training in the CI......Page 133
    Developing Community Corrections and Questioning Its Performance......Page 134
    Reintroducing Rehabilitation Efforts to Improve Outcomes......Page 135
    Tailoring Responses to Supervisees With Mental Disorder......Page 136
    COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT FOR STANDING TRIAL FOR DEFENDANTS WITH MENTAL RETARDATION (CAST*MR)......Page 137
    CAST*MR Validity and Reliability......Page 138
    Criteria for Adjudicative Competence......Page 139
    Foundational and Decisional Competence......Page 140
    Legal and Ethical Context......Page 142
    Focus of Restoration Treatment......Page 143
    Restoration Success Versus Failure......Page 144
    COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT (CAI)......Page 145
    COMPETENCY FOR EXECUTION......Page 146
    Legal Standards......Page 147
    Research on Competency for Execution......Page 148
    Description and Development......Page 149
    COMPETENCY TO BE SENTENCED......Page 150
    COMPETENCY TO CONFESS......Page 152
    COMPETENCY TO STAND TRIAL......Page 153
    Legal Standard and Procedures......Page 154
    Complexities in Waiver of Appeals Among Death-Sentenced Inmates......Page 157
    Supreme Court Guidance on Competence to Waive Death Sentence Appeals......Page 158
    Evaluations of Death-Sentenced Inmates for Competence to Waive Appeals......Page 159
    COMPETENCY TO WAIVE COUNSEL (PROCEED PRO SE)......Page 160
    Theoretical Issues......Page 161
    Conclusions......Page 163
    Lineup Presentation......Page 164
    Showups......Page 165
    CONDITIONAL RELEASE PROGRAMS......Page 166
    CONDUCT DISORDER......Page 167
    Conduct Disorder and Psychopathy......Page 168
    Prevention and Intervention......Page 169
    CONFESSION EVIDENCE......Page 170
    Factors for and Against a Confidence-Accuracy Relationship......Page 172
    Confidence-Accuracy Calibration......Page 173
    Applied Implications......Page 174
    Confidence Malleability......Page 175
    CONFIDENCE IN IDENTIFICATIONS, MALLEABILITY......Page 176
    Retrospective Confidence in Identification Accuracy......Page 177
    Remedies for Confidence Malleability......Page 178
    Surveys of Incidence: Conflict Tactics Surveys......Page 179
    Criticisms......Page 180
    CONFORMITY IN EYEWITNESS REPORTS......Page 181
    Historical Perspective......Page 182
    Requirements of Informed Consent......Page 183
    Competency of Special Populations......Page 184
    Social Support......Page 185
    Attributions About the Cause of the Rape......Page 186
    Social Factors......Page 187
    Psychological Factors......Page 188
    Biological Factors......Page 189
    CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY, ASSESSMENT OF......Page 191
    The Calculus of Legal Tests for Insanity......Page 192
    Clinical Assessment of Criminal Responsibility......Page 193
    CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY, DEFENSES AND STANDARDS......Page 195
    M’Naghten Case......Page 196
    Irresistible Impulse......Page 197
    American Law Institute’s Model Penal Code Test......Page 198
    “Guilty but Mentally Ill”......Page 199
    Abolition and Limitation Proposals......Page 200
    Hostage and Crisis Negotiation......Page 201
    Team Composition and Tactics......Page 202
    The Influence of Power Tactics and Face-Saving......Page 203
    Active Listening and the Resolution Process......Page 204
    Developing Mental Models......Page 205
    CROSS-RACE EFFECT IN EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 206
    The CRE in Eyewitness Identification and Person Descriptions......Page 207
    Theoretical Underpinnings of the CRE......Page 208
    CSI EFFECT......Page 209
    Major Types of Cybercrime......Page 211
    Cybercriminals......Page 212
    Responses to Cybercrime......Page 213
    Various Kinds of Damage Awards......Page 215
    Controversy Surrounding Decisions About Damages......Page 216
    Determining Jury Damage Awards......Page 217
    Reforming Jury Damage Awards......Page 218
    Psychometric Evaluation......Page 219
    DEATH PENALTY......Page 220
    The Supreme Court and the Death Penalty......Page 221
    Public Opinion......Page 222
    Wrongful Conviction and Execution......Page 223
    The Nature and Effect of Death Qualification......Page 224
    Changes in the Legal Standard of Exclusion......Page 225
    Definition of Delusions......Page 226
    Types of Delusions......Page 227
    Assessment of Delusions......Page 228
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION: COGNITIVE LOAD......Page 229
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION: EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS......Page 231
    Use of MRI in Detecting Deception......Page 233
    Theoretical Approaches......Page 234
    Nonverbal Behavior and Deception in General......Page 235
    Limitations and Conclusions......Page 236
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION: REALITY MONITORING......Page 237
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION: USE OF EVIDENCE IN......Page 238
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION BY DETECTION “WIZARDS”......Page 240
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION IN ADULTS......Page 241
    Overall Results......Page 242
    Motivation......Page 243
    Beliefs About Deception......Page 244
    Limitations and Future Challenges......Page 245
    Children’s Deception......Page 246
    Children’s Nonverbal Deception Cues......Page 247
    Children’s Verbal Deception Cues......Page 248
    Other Factors......Page 249
    DETECTION OF DECEPTION IN HIGH-STAKES LIARS......Page 250
    The Mens Rea Variant......Page 251
    Partial Responsibility Variant......Page 253
    DIPLOMATES IN FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY......Page 254
    Disability Claims......Page 256
    Evaluation of Disability and Workers’ Compensation Claims......Page 257
    Disparate Treatment......Page 259
    Psychological Consultation......Page 260
    The Diagnosis of DID......Page 261
    Perspectives on Causal Mechanisms......Page 262
    Forensic Implications......Page 263
    Divorce and Its Aftermath......Page 264
    The Process of Conducting Child Custody Evaluations......Page 265
    Research on Divorce and Child Custody Outcomes......Page 266
    Doctoral Program Specialty Areas......Page 267
    Training Models in Psychology and Law Doctoral Programs......Page 268
    Training Areas and Objectives in Doctoral Programs......Page 269
    Employment Opportunities for Graduates of Doctoral Programs......Page 270
    Domestic Violence Courts in the United States......Page 271
    Domestic Violence Courts in the United Kingdom......Page 272
    Case Progression in Domestic Violence Courts......Page 273
    DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SCREENING INSTRUMENT (DVSI)......Page 274
    Implementing and Modifying the DVSI in Connecticut......Page 275
    Origins of the Recommendation for Double-Blind Lineups......Page 276
    Empirical Support for the Use of Double-Blind Lineups......Page 277
    DRUG COURTS......Page 278
    “DYNAMITE CHARGE”......Page 279
    Definitions and Prevalence......Page 283
    Prevention and Treatment Approaches......Page 284
    Elders in Prisons......Page 285
    ELDERLY EYEWITNESSES......Page 286
    Recognition and Identification......Page 287
    Defining Clinical/Legal Issues at the End of Life......Page 288
    Legal History of the “Right to Die”......Page 289
    Treatment Decision Making......Page 290
    ESTIMATOR AND SYSTEM VARIABLES IN EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 291
    Intended Beneficiary of the Forensic Product or Service......Page 292
    Beneficence and Nonmalfeasance......Page 293
    Professional Competence......Page 294
    Judgment......Page 295
    The Big Picture......Page 296
    External Correlates of Psychopathy Across Ethnic Groups......Page 297
    Differences in Levels of Psychopathic Traits......Page 298
    Explaining Cross-Group Differences in Psychopathy......Page 299
    Forensic Applications......Page 300
    Past Mental States......Page 301
    Past Behavior......Page 302
    Current Mental State......Page 303
    Commentary on the Probative Value of Other Evidence......Page 304
    Frye v. United States......Page 305
    Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals......Page 306
    Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael......Page 307
    Effects of Changing Standards on the Admissibility of Expert Evidence......Page 308
    The Davis Model......Page 309
    The Monahan-Walker Model......Page 310
    The Courts’ Model of Causation: General and Specific......Page 311
    EXPERT PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTIMONY ON EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 312
    EXPERT TESTIMONY, QUALIFICATIONS OF EXPERTS......Page 314
    EXPOSURE TIME AND EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 316
    EXTREME EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE......Page 317
    Quantity Versus Quality of Person Descriptions......Page 319
    Methods for Obtaining Person Descriptions......Page 320
    EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION: EFFECT OF DISGUISES AND APPEARANCE CHANGES......Page 321
    Disguise......Page 322
    Identification Procedures......Page 323
    EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION: FIELD STUDIES......Page 324
    The Opinions of Experts......Page 326
    Other Evidence......Page 327
    History of Research on Eyewitness Memory......Page 328
    Types of Eyewitness Memory and Factors Affecting Eyewitness Memory......Page 329
    Methods of Improving Eyewitness Memory......Page 330
    Evaluating Eyewitness Memory......Page 331
    Eyewitnesses in the Courtroom......Page 332
    EYEWITNESS MEMORY, LAY BELIEFS ABOUT......Page 333
    Direct Methods......Page 334
    Indirect Methods......Page 335
    Potential Difficulties With Evaluations of Lay Knowledge......Page 336
    FACIAL COMPOSITES......Page 339
    FALSE CONFESSIONS......Page 340
    Types of False Confessions......Page 341
    Why Innocents Confess......Page 342
    Empirical Research on False Confessions......Page 343
    The Repression Phenomenon......Page 344
    How Do False Memories Develop?......Page 345
    Importance of Financial Capacity......Page 347
    Methods for Clinically Assessing Financial Capacity......Page 348
    Research on Financial Capacity......Page 349
    Conceptualization and Development of the FCI......Page 350
    Future Research......Page 351
    Sources of Evidence......Page 352
    Basis of Testimony......Page 353
    Psychological Research Using Latent Print Examiners......Page 354
    FITNESS-FOR-DUTY EVALUATIONS......Page 355
    FITNESS INTERVIEW TEST–REVISED (FIT–R)......Page 356
    FORCED CONFABULATION......Page 358
    FORCIBLE MEDICATION......Page 359
    Constitutional Requirements for Forcible Medication......Page 360
    The Right to a Hearing......Page 361
    FORENSIC ASSESSMENT......Page 362
    Training and Practice Guidelines......Page 363
    Forensic Assessment Settings......Page 364
    Tests and Assessment Instruments......Page 365
    GEORGIA COURT COMPETENCE TEST (GCCT)......Page 369
    Development and Purpose......Page 370
    Application, Interpretation, and Acceptability......Page 371
    GUARDIANSHIP......Page 372
    Psychological Issues......Page 373
    Administration......Page 374
    Research......Page 375
    GUILTY BUT MENTALLY ILL VERDICT......Page 376
    Disorders Associated With Hallucinations......Page 379
    Hallucinations and Schizophrenia......Page 380
    Assessment of Hallucinations......Page 381
    Description and Psychometric Properties......Page 382
    Current Issues......Page 383
    Description and Development......Page 384
    HARE PSYCHOPATHY CHECKLIST: YOUTH VERSION (PCL:YV)......Page 385
    Psychometric Properties......Page 386
    Description and Use......Page 387
    HEARSAY TESTIMONY......Page 388
    Environmental Theories......Page 390
    Evolutionary Perspectives......Page 391
    Future Directions and Integration......Page 392
    HOPKINS COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT TEST (HCAT)......Page 393
    HYPNOSIS AND EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 394
    Research Findings......Page 395
    IDENTIFICATION TESTS, BEST PRACTICES IN......Page 399
    Instructions to the Witness......Page 400
    Conducting the Identification Procedure......Page 401
    Recording the Procedure......Page 402
    INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE, IMPACT ON JURIES......Page 403
    Juror Decision Making in Insanity Cases......Page 404
    INSANITY DEFENSE REFORM ACT (IDRA)......Page 406
    Historical Progression of Hospitalization of Persons With Mental Illness......Page 408
    Implications for the Future......Page 409
    Biased Versus Unbiased Instructions......Page 410
    INTERDISCIPLINARY FITNESS INTERVIEW (IFI)......Page 411
    What Really Happens in Police Interviews?......Page 413
    Reform of Techniques......Page 414
    Suspects’ Views......Page 415
    Defining Intimate Partner Violence......Page 416
    Risk Markers......Page 417
    Types of Interventions......Page 418
    INVOLUNTARY COMMITMENT See CIVIL COMMITMENT; OUTPATIENT COMMITMENT, INVOLUNTARY......Page 420
    JAIL SCREENING ASSESSMENT TOOL (JSAT)......Page 421
    JUDGES’ NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR......Page 422
    Laypeople’s Intuitions About Eyewitness Memory......Page 424
    Jurors’ Intuitions and Their Verdicts......Page 425
    JURIES AND JOINED TRIALS......Page 426
    Empirical Evidence......Page 427
    Jury Instruction Comprehension Rates......Page 429
    Improving the Jury Instruction Process......Page 431
    The “Plain English” Movement and the Future of Jury Instructions......Page 432
    Legal and Theoretical Basis for Administrative Reforms......Page 433
    Specific Reforms......Page 434
    Jurors’ Use of Evidence......Page 435
    Jury Instructions......Page 437
    Aids to Jury Decision Making......Page 438
    JURY DECISIONS VERSUS JUDGES’ DECISIONS......Page 439
    Case-Based Judicial Surveys......Page 440
    Simulations and Experiments......Page 441
    A General Model of Deliberation......Page 442
    Initial Distribution of Verdict Preferences......Page 443
    The Dynamics of Consensus......Page 444
    Deliberation Quality......Page 445
    A Short History of Jury Nullification......Page 446
    Jury Research and Nullification Instructions......Page 448
    JURY QUESTIONNAIRES......Page 449
    Voir Dire......Page 451
    Jury Comprehension and Performance......Page 452
    Definition of Jury Selection......Page 454
    Traditional Jury Selection......Page 455
    Individual Characteristics as Predictors of Verdicts......Page 456
    JURY SIZE AND DECISION RULE......Page 457
    Jury Size......Page 458
    Social Decision Rule......Page 459
    Penalty Phase Instructions......Page 460
    Jury Decision Making......Page 461
    JUVENILE BOOT CAMPS......Page 462
    Differences in Boot Camps......Page 463
    Do Juvenile Boot Camps Work?......Page 464
    JUVENILE OFFENDERS......Page 465
    Juvenile Population and Crime Statistics......Page 466
    Developmental Pathways of Delinquent Behavior and Juvenile Offending......Page 467
    Predictors of Desistance and Persistence......Page 468
    JUVENILE OFFENDERS, RISK FACTORS......Page 469
    Individual Characteristics......Page 470
    Community Conditions......Page 471
    JUVENILE PSYCHOPATHY......Page 472
    Construct Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: Potential Mechanisms and Etiology......Page 473
    Malleability of Juvenile Psychopathy......Page 474
    JUVENILES AND THE DEATH PENALTY......Page 475
    Research on Juvenile Development......Page 476
    Measures of Legal Authoritarianism......Page 479
    LEGAL NEGOTIATION......Page 481
    Heuristics and Biases......Page 482
    Influence......Page 483
    LEGAL SOCIALIZATION......Page 484
    Research......Page 485
    Evidence for the Leniency Bias......Page 487
    Implications of the Leniency Bias......Page 488
    Filler Selection Strategies......Page 489
    Assessing Lineup Fairness......Page 490
    Lineup Bias......Page 491
    Good and Bad Lineups......Page 492
    All-Suspect and Multiple-Suspect Lineups......Page 493
    LITIGATION STRESS......Page 494
    MACARTHUR COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH (MACCAT–CR)......Page 497
    MACARTHUR COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR CRIMINAL ADJUDICATION (MACCAT–CA)......Page 498
    MACARTHUR COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR TREATMENT (MACCAT–T)......Page 500
    The MacArthur Study’s General Research Strategy......Page 501
    Results of the MacArthur Study......Page 503
    MALINGERING......Page 504
    Domains of Malingering......Page 505
    Detection Strategies......Page 506
    Detection Strategies for Feigned Cognitive Disorders......Page 507
    Conclusion......Page 508
    MALINGERING PROBABILITY SCALE......Page 509
    MANDATED COMMUNITY TREATMENT......Page 510
    Psychiatric Advance Directives......Page 511
    Development and Factor Structure......Page 512
    MASTER’S PROGRAMS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW......Page 513
    Relevant Components for Training......Page 514
    Considerations for Students Pursuing a Master’s Degree......Page 515
    MEDIA VIOLENCE AND BEHAVIOR......Page 516
    Effects of Television and Movie Violence on Aggressive Behavior......Page 517
    Theoretical Mechanisms......Page 518
    Policy Implications......Page 519
    MEGAN’S LAWS See SEX OFFENDER COMMUNITY NOTIFICATION (MEGAN’S LAWS)......Page 520
    Mens Rea......Page 521
    Origins of Mental Health Courts......Page 522
    Hearings......Page 523
    Transition From a Medical Model to a Legal Model......Page 524
    Constitutional Limits in the Criminal Process......Page 525
    The Emerging Therapeutic Jurisprudence Paradigm......Page 526
    Rates and Types of Mental Disorders Among Juvenile Offenders......Page 527
    Implications for Service Delivery......Page 528
    Treating and Managing the Mental Health Needs of Juvenile Offenders......Page 529
    MENTAL ILLNESS AND THE DEATH PENALTY......Page 530
    The Role of Mental Health Professionals......Page 531
    Public Opinion Research......Page 532
    MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY, ASSESSMENT OF......Page 533
    Nature, Symptoms, and Outcomes From mTBI......Page 534
    Psychological Evaluation of mTBI......Page 535
    Description and Structure......Page 536
    Validity......Page 537
    Diagnostic Accuracy of the MCMI–III......Page 538
    MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY–2 (MMPI–2)......Page 539
    Assets and Limitations......Page 540
    MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY–2 (MMPI–2) VALIDITY SCALES......Page 541
    Description and Development......Page 543
    Validity......Page 544
    M’NAGHTEN STANDARD......Page 545
    MOOD DISORDERS......Page 546
    Suicide......Page 547
    Causes of Mood Disorders......Page 548
    MORAL DISENGAGEMENT AND EXECUTION......Page 549
    Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement......Page 550
    Executioners and Moral Disengagement......Page 551
    MOTIONS TO SUPPRESS EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 552
    Defense Lawyers’ Sensitivity to Suggestive Lineup Procedures......Page 553
    Why the Manson Test Compromises Motions to Suppress......Page 554
    Interference......Page 555
    MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER See DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER......Page 556
    NEIL V. BIGGERS CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 557
    Certainty, View, and Attention: Subjective Criteria......Page 558
    The Biggers Criteria Attempt to Postdict Accuracy......Page 559
    Scale Components......Page 560
    Future Directions......Page 561
    Community Standards and Expert Testimony......Page 563
    OPTIMALITY HYPOTHESIS IN EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 564
    Criteria for Outpatient Commitment......Page 566
    The Legality of Outpatient Commitment Statutes......Page 567
    The Impact of Outpatient Commitment Statutes......Page 568
    Juvenile Law......Page 569
    PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP INVENTORY (PCRI)......Page 570
    Future Research......Page 571
    Scale Development......Page 572
    Validity......Page 573
    Administration and Scoring......Page 574
    PAROLE DECISIONS......Page 575
    Context......Page 576
    Process......Page 577
    PATIENT’S RIGHTS......Page 578
    Right to Refuse Treatment......Page 579
    Right to Be Free of Unreasonable Seclusion and Restraint......Page 580
    Definition......Page 581
    Assessment and Diagnosis......Page 582
    Etiology......Page 583
    Treatment......Page 584
    Psychologists’ Role......Page 585
    Observers......Page 586
    Report of Findings......Page 587
    Specific Personality Disorders......Page 588
    Categorical Versus Dimensional Approaches......Page 592
    Self-Interests of the Bargainers......Page 593
    POLICE AS EYEWITNESSES......Page 595
    Officers’ Decision Frames and Response Styles......Page 597
    Police Decisions and Racial Disparity......Page 598
    Police Decisions on the Use of Force......Page 599
    How Officers Think About Domestic Violence......Page 601
    Criteria Used in Arrest Decisions......Page 602
    Officers’ Personal Characteristics and Decision Making......Page 603
    Prevalence and Situational Profile......Page 604
    Police Training......Page 605
    POLICE OCCUPATIONAL SOCIALIZATION......Page 606
    Entry Phase......Page 607
    In-Service Phase......Page 608
    POLICE PSYCHOLOGISTS......Page 609
    History of Police Psychology......Page 611
    Clinical Intervention......Page 612
    Training for a Career as a Police Psychologist......Page 613
    Evaluating Police Applicants......Page 614
    Educating and Training Police Officers......Page 615
    Carrying Out Fitness-for-Duty Assessments......Page 617
    Selection Strategy......Page 618
    Personal Interview......Page 619
    Current Trends......Page 620
    POLICE STRESS......Page 621
    Sources of Stress in Police Work......Page 622
    Resolving Stress......Page 623
    Recruit, Field, and In-Service Training......Page 624
    Information and Skills Training......Page 625
    Evaluation Methods......Page 626
    Decision Making......Page 627
    Stress Effects......Page 628
    Job-Related Experiences......Page 629
    Standard Physiological Measures in Modern Polygraphs......Page 630
    The Knowledge Approach......Page 631
    The Deception Approach......Page 632
    POPOUT EFFECT IN EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 634
    PORNOGRAPHY, EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO......Page 635
    The Obscenity Theoretical Perspective......Page 636
    Theoretical Perspectives on Pornography......Page 637
    POSTDOCTORAL RESIDENCIES IN FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY......Page 639
    Accreditation Issues......Page 640
    POSTEVENT INFORMATION AND EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 641
    Cognitive Interpretations of the Effect of Postevent Information......Page 642
    Can Postevent Information Plant False Events in Memory?......Page 643
    Current PTSD Diagnostic Criteria......Page 644
    Issues Related to Diagnosing PTSD in Children and Other Special Populations......Page 645
    PTSD: Current Controversies......Page 646
    PRESENCE OF COUNSEL SAFEGUARD AND EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 647
    PRESENTENCE EVALUATIONS......Page 648
    PRETRIAL PUBLICITY, IMPACT ON JURIES......Page 649
    Potential Remedies for Prejudicial Effects of PTP......Page 650
    Psychological Consultation in PTP Cases......Page 651
    PRISON OVERCROWDING......Page 652
    Consequences......Page 653
    Future Research......Page 654
    Pretrial Decisions......Page 655
    Postconviction Decisions......Page 656
    Procedural Justice and the Law......Page 659
    Challenges to Procedural Justice Theory......Page 660
    Cross-Cultural Views......Page 661
    Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)......Page 662
    PROFILING......Page 663
    Components......Page 664
    PROSECUTORIAL MISCONDUCT......Page 665
    Remedies for Prosecutorial Misconduct......Page 666
    PROXY DECISION MAKING......Page 667
    PSYCHIATRIC ADVANCE DIRECTIVES......Page 668
    Ethical and Legal Questions......Page 669
    Current Research and Trends......Page 670
    Concluding Remarks......Page 671
    PSYCHOLOGICAL AUTOPSIES......Page 672
    Reliability......Page 673
    PSYCHOPATHIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (PPI)......Page 674
    Reliability......Page 675
    PSYCHOPATHY......Page 676
    Practical Interest in Psychopathy......Page 677
    Basic Nature and Manifestations of Psychopathy......Page 678
    Defining Features......Page 681
    Treatment-Outcome Studies......Page 682
    Directions for Future Studies......Page 683
    Symptomatology......Page 684
    Contemporary Classification......Page 685
    Treatment......Page 687
    Forensic Relevance......Page 688
    Public’s Ranking of the Seriousness of Offenses......Page 689
    Public’s Stereotypes of Crimes and Criminals......Page 690
    Public Knowledge About Sentencing, Parole, and Prisons......Page 692
    General Versus Specific Questions About Sentencing......Page 693
    Mandatory Minimum Prison Terms and Retributive Justice......Page 694
    The Public’s Image of the Courts......Page 695
    Explaining Opinions About the Court......Page 696
    PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT THE POLYGRAPH......Page 698
    Race of Defendant......Page 701
    Race of Juror......Page 702
    Jury Racial Composition......Page 703
    Legal Background......Page 704
    Causes of Racial Bias......Page 705
    Definition of Rape Trauma Syndrome......Page 706
    Expert Testimony on RTS......Page 707
    Reliability and Validity Findings......Page 708
    RECONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY......Page 709
    The Process of Memory Reconstruction......Page 710
    Postevent Information......Page 711
    REID TECHNIQUE FOR INTERROGATIONS......Page 712
    The Nine-Step Process......Page 713
    Use of the Reid Technique With Innocent Suspects......Page 714
    Use of Religion in Voir Dire......Page 715
    Use of Religion by Lawyers During Trial......Page 716
    Use of Religion by Judges......Page 717
    REPEATED RECALL......Page 718
    Absolute Reporting Rates......Page 719
    Process of Reporting......Page 720
    Bystander Reporting......Page 721
    Surge in Recovered Memories and Their Effects......Page 722
    Research in the Field of Repressed and Recovered Memories......Page 724
    Alternative Explanations for Repression......Page 725
    RESPONSE LATENCY IN EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 726
    RETENTION INTERVAL AND EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 727
    Fitness for Duty in High-Risk Occupations......Page 729
    Conclusion......Page 731
    Approaches to Risk Assessment......Page 732
    Development......Page 735
    Application......Page 736
    Validity......Page 737
    Forensic Applications......Page 738
    Origin of Scientific Jury Selection......Page 739
    An SJS Survey......Page 740
    Utility of SJS......Page 741
    Sentencing Theory and Policy......Page 742
    Research Describing and Explaining Sentencing Practice......Page 743
    The Purpose of Diversion Programs......Page 744
    Features of Diversion Programs......Page 745
    Effectiveness of Diversion Programs......Page 746
    Definition......Page 747
    Motivation of Serial Killers......Page 748
    Future Research......Page 749
    Forensic Psychological Practice With Sex Offenders......Page 750
    Assessment of Sexual Preferences......Page 751
    Risk Assessment Among Sex Offenders......Page 752
    Conclusions......Page 753
    Sex Offender Civil Commitment Criteria......Page 754
    SEX OFFENDER COMMUNITY NOTIFICATION (MEGAN’S LAWS)......Page 755
    Effectiveness of Community Notification......Page 756
    Recidivism, Risk Assessment, and Community Notification Practices......Page 757
    SEX OFFENDER NEEDS ASSESSMENT RATING (SONAR)......Page 759
    Sex Offender Recidivism......Page 760
    Static and Dynamic Predictors of Sex Offender Recidivism......Page 761
    Sex Offender Typologies and Recidivism......Page 762
    SEX OFFENDER RISK APPRAISAL GUIDE (SORAG)......Page 763
    Treatment Models......Page 764
    Risk, Need, and Responsivity......Page 765
    Does Treatment Work?......Page 766
    Incest Offenders......Page 767
    Exhibitionism......Page 768
    SEXUAL HARASSMENT......Page 769
    Federal Sexual Harassment Law......Page 770
    Gender Differences......Page 771
    Social Cognitive Model of Sexual Harassment Judgments......Page 772
    Gender Effects on Juror Decisions in Sexual Harassment Cases......Page 774
    The Effect of Expert Testimony on Juror Decisions......Page 775
    Damage Award Decisions......Page 776
    Critique......Page 777
    SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF RISK AND TREATABILITY (START)......Page 778
    Future Research......Page 779
    SHOWUPS......Page 780
    SIMULTANEOUS AND SEQUENTIAL LINEUP PRESENTATION......Page 781
    SOURCE MONITORING AND EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 782
    SPOUSAL ASSAULT RISK ASSESSMENT (SARA)......Page 784
    STABLE–2007 AND ACUTE–2007 INSTRUMENTS......Page 785
    The Mental Health System and Stalking......Page 787
    Community Perceptions of Stalking......Page 788
    Treatment of Stalkers......Page 789
    STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT......Page 790
    STATEMENT VALIDITY ASSESSMENT (SVA)......Page 791
    The Validity Checklist......Page 792
    Research and Evaluation......Page 793
    The STATIC–99......Page 794
    The STATIC–2002......Page 795
    Juror Understanding of Statistical Evidence......Page 796
    How Jurors Combine Statistical Evidence With Nonstatistical Evidence......Page 797
    “STEALING THUNDER”......Page 798
    Why Does Stealing Thunder Work?......Page 799
    Story Construction......Page 800
    Learning Verdict Options......Page 801
    Research Investigating the Story Model......Page 802
    STRESS AND EYEWITNESS MEMORY......Page 803
    STRUCTURED ASSESSMENT OF VIOLENCE RISK IN YOUTH (SAVRY)......Page 804
    Psychometric Properties......Page 805
    Validity......Page 806
    Substance Abuse as a Risk Marker for IPV......Page 807
    Implications for Research and Practice......Page 808
    Typical Care at Treatment Facilities......Page 809
    Evidence-Based Treatment......Page 810
    Biopsychosocial Model......Page 812
    Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorders......Page 814
    Risk Factors......Page 815
    Suicide Prevention......Page 818
    SUICIDE ASSESSMENT MANUAL FOR INMATES (SAMI)......Page 819
    SUICIDE BY COP......Page 820
    SUPERMAX PRISONS......Page 821
    Population of Supermax Prisons......Page 822
    Legal Regulation......Page 823
    Current Research on the Tender Years Doctrine......Page 825
    TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS......Page 826
    Forensic Assessment in Context......Page 827
    Parenting and Child Development......Page 828
    TERRORISM......Page 829
    TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY......Page 832
    Attorney Observations of TC......Page 833
    Research on TC......Page 834
    Development and Validation......Page 835
    THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITIES FOR TREATMENT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE......Page 836
    Research on Therapeutic Communities......Page 837
    Therapeutic Jurisprudence: An Overview......Page 838
    Practical Implications......Page 839
    The Future of Therapeutic Jurisprudence......Page 840
    TRAINING OF EYEWITNESSES......Page 841
    CRIMINAL COURT TRANSLATED TESTIMONY......Page 842
    Impact on Jurors’ and Juries’ Decisions......Page 843
    Implications for the Law......Page 844
    The Role of the Physician......Page 845
    Public Policy on the Rights of the Insane......Page 846
    Contemporary Issues and Developments......Page 847
    TRIAL CONSULTANT TRAINING......Page 848
    On-the-Job Training......Page 849
    Certification of Trial Consultants......Page 850
    Trial-Consulting Services......Page 851
    UNCONSCIOUS TRANSFERENCE......Page 855
    UNIFORM CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATION SYSTEM (UCCES)......Page 856
    Psychometric Properties......Page 857
    U.S. SUPREME COURT......Page 858
    Role of the Solicitor General......Page 859
    Types of Rulings......Page 860
    Interface of Psychological Science and the Supreme Court......Page 861
    VALIDITY INDICATOR PROFILE (VIP)......Page 863
    VERBAL OVERSHADOWING AND EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION......Page 864
    VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENTS......Page 866
    VICTIMIZATION......Page 868
    Effects of Victimization......Page 869
    What Happens During VOM?......Page 871
    Victims’ and Offenders’ Perceptions of VOM......Page 872
    The Future of VOM......Page 873
    Changes in the Role of Crime Victims......Page 874
    Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing......Page 875
    Research Findings on the Effects of Victim Participation......Page 876
    Restorative Justice, Therapeutic Jurisprudence, and the VIS......Page 877
    Law Enforcement’s Mixed Reactions to Videotaping......Page 878
    Possible Drawbacks of the Videotaping Practice......Page 879
    VIOLENCE RISK APPRAISAL GUIDE (VRAG)......Page 881
    VIOLENCE RISK ASSESSMENT......Page 882
    History of the Scientific Study of Violence Risk Assessment......Page 883
    Contemporary Approaches to Violence Risk Assessment......Page 884
    VOICE RECOGNITION......Page 885
    Earwitness Research......Page 886
    Factors Influencing Voice Recognition Accuracy......Page 887
    Voice Identification Procedures......Page 888
    Procedural Elements of Voir Dire......Page 889
    Voir Dire as a Safeguard......Page 890
    Research on the Format and Effectiveness of Voir Dire......Page 891
    Historical Purposes of Waiver of Jurisdiction......Page 893
    Mechanisms for Transfer: Routes to and From Juvenile Courts......Page 894
    Psychology’s Link to Juvenile Waiver Considerations......Page 895
    WEAPON FOCUS......Page 896
    The WITNESS Model......Page 898
    Applications of the WITNESS Model......Page 899
    Witness Education......Page 900
    Testimony Delivery Skills......Page 901
    Does Witness Preparation Work?......Page 902
    Scope of the Problem......Page 903
    Causes of Wrongful Convictions......Page 904
    Cognitive Distortions and Biases......Page 905
    Reforms......Page 906
    A......Page 908
    B......Page 910
    C......Page 912
    D......Page 917
    E......Page 919
    F......Page 922
    G......Page 923
    H......Page 924
    I......Page 925
    J......Page 926
    L......Page 928
    M......Page 930
    N......Page 933
    P......Page 934
    R......Page 938
    S......Page 940
    T......Page 943
    U......Page 944
    V......Page 945
    W......Page 946
    Y,Z......Page 947

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